The codebook for the bigger research had been based considerably on the variables produced by Kunkel

The codebook for the bigger research had been based considerably on the variables produced by Kunkel

Only a few product that has been taped had been coded. As our focus had been on scripted development, we excluded day-to-day news broadcasts, game shows, sports programs and activities, and paid development, along with all kinds of commercials along with other promotions ( e.g., teasers for community programs). Although music videos had been taped, these were coded and analyzed individually because of their unique traits and tend to be maybe maybe perhaps not reported right right here. The analyses offered in this paper, nonetheless, do are the video that is nonmusic from cable music activity channels including talk programs, variety/comedy shows, and truth programs. In addition, reveals that were incomplete simply because they started before 3:00 p.m. or ended after 11:00 p.m. are not coded. Finally, episode repeats had been eradicated through the test.

The sample that is final the 2001 2002 period contained 1,276 unique program episodes, whereas the ultimate test for the 2002 2003 season included 1,439 unique system episodes. The sample when it comes to 2nd content analysis ended up being significantly bigger than the very first 12 months’s test that we had three episodes of each nonsyndicated series as we made a concerted effort in year 2 to ensure. Despite strict adherence into the sampling plan, extra taping had been needed whenever, for instance, brand brand new programs entered the fall lineup following the start of year to substitute for cancelled programs or as soon as the time and time slot for a set ended up being changed.


The codebook for the bigger research had been based considerably regarding the factors manufactured by Kunkel and peers (1999, 2001, 2003) in their content analyses conducted for the Kaiser Family Foundation. We created extra things, including those on exact same intercourse intimate behavior and sexual talk associated with nonheterosexuals. As opposed to Kunkel and peers, whom utilized the scene given that main product of analysis, our content analyses involved coding for intimate content in 2 moment periods of system time. Because scenes differ considerably in total and, hence, usually do not offer a continuing product of measure to make evaluations across programs, we utilized a coding that is standard predicated on time. Coding news development in designated time periods has been used often by other scientists conducting analyses that are content different system genres including films, detergent operas, and music videos (Hazan, Lipton, & Glantz, 1994; Lowery, 1980; Roberts, Christenson, Henriksen, & Bandy, 2002; Roberts, Henriksen, & Christenson, 1999; Sommers Flanagan, Sommers Flanagan, & Davis, 1993; Stockwell & Glantz, 1997; Terre, Drabman, & Speer, 1991).

For purposes for this content analysis, intercourse had been understood to be any depiction of sexual intercourse, intimately suggestive behavior, or any speak about sex or activity that is sexual. To be conservative and prevent overcoding sexual content, messages about intercourse were differentiated from nonsexual communications pertaining to love and relationships, that have been perhaps perhaps not coded. For instance, a statement such as “I favor my boyfriend” wouldn’t be coded whereas a declaration such as “I made like to my boyfriend” could be coded.

exact Same sex behavior that is sexual

Every 2 moment period that had been coded as containing a minumum of one variety of sexual intercourse monitored in the primary coding task flirting, kissing, intimate touching, intercourse implied, sexual activity depicted, along with other intimate behavior 2 had been additionally examined for the existence of exact same intercourse behavior that is sexual. With this product, programmers utilized a yes/no response format to point whether some of the sexual behavior depicted within the period took place between two different people associated with the sex that is same.

Speak about nonheterosexual issues that are sexual

Each 2 minute period adult live cam that was indeed coded as containing a minumum of one example of talk through the intimate talk groups found in the key coding task ( e.g., responses about own/others’ intimate actions or interests, speak about sexual activity which has had currently occurred, speak about sex crimes) has also been coded for whether some of the intimate talk associated with nonheterosexuals. With this product, programmers once once again utilized a yes/no response format to point whether some of the talk that is sexual the sexual passions or issues of nonheterosexual people. Most frequently, such responses linked to gays and lesbians, although periodically these were connected with bisexuals.